Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the first person to compare celestial observations recorded centuries apart. He noticed that the positions of stars appeared to gradually shift. Around the year 130 BC, Hipparchus used ancient observations from the Babylonians, Meton of Athens (fifth century BC), Eratosthenes, and others, and compared them to his own. He concluded that in the preceding 169 years those intersections had moved by 2 degrees.
He was able to measure this change by comparing readings taken during one specific day of the year, the Spring Equinox. Twice per year, the durations of day and night are equal, and the Sun rises exactly in the east and sets exactly in the west.
Hipparchus concluded that the intersection marking the equinox slowly crept forward along the ecliptic, and called that motion "the precession of the equinoxes. " The rate is about one full circle in 26,000 years.
Zodiac Signs and Earth's Axial Precession
The Zodiac signs represent star constellations in our Milky Way galaxy as observed from Earth. A current zodiac sign is determined by drawing a line from Earth, through the Sun, and intersecting this line with one of twelve given star constellations. But this can also be used to determine larger celestial ages.
The Earth is currently inclined along its axis at an angle of 23.4° relative to its orbit around the Sun. But there is a wobble to this inclination. This is what Hipparchus referred to as axial precession. This precession takes roughly 26,000 years to complete, and traverses retrograde to the revolution of the Earth around the Sun.
Now pick one specific day of the year to observe the star constellation intersected by a line drawn from the Earth and through the Sun. For this day we will choose the Spring Equinox. In the northern hemisphere, the Spring Equinox (Vernal Equinox) currently occurs around March 20, when the sun moves north across the celestial equator. Days become longer than nights after this date.
Observing the Zodiac star constellation on this specific day for thousands of years will show the precession of the Earth about its axis. Over 26,000 years it will proceed throughout all twelve zodiac signs, as the date of the Spring Equinox gradually moves backward in the calendar year. These represent the Zodiac Ages. Using these concrete tools, we can then use a standard calendar spanning many thousands of years. And we can reconcile this with our own Modern calendars.
Our dating system is centered around the birth of Jesus, because that is the date we assign as the first year AD. It just so happens that the birth of Jesus coincides with the beginning of the Age of Pisces. Every year listed as BC is the number of years before this date, and years listed as AD are the number of years after this date. Thus, future calendar systems can be calibrated with our Modern calendar system by reconciling them with the beginning of the Age of Pisces.
The birth of Jesus coincides with the beginning of the Age of Pisces. This age is represented as two fish. It is curious that both early and Modern Christians use the symbol of a fish to represent their Christian faith.
It should be mentioned that in our Christian traditions, a sunrise service is held on Easter. These services are usually held outdoors, and the sunrise is observed. It is rather interesting that Easter falls shortly after the Spring Equinox in our Modern calendars.
The Egyptian Sphinx turns out to be an excellent way to tell time over tens of thousands of years. On the Spring Equinox, the sun rises directly in front of the Sphinx. This permanent fixture on our planet's surface serves as an indication of which day of the year to choose to observe the current Zodiac age.
Supposedly the Sphinx was built around 2500 BC. But that would have been during the age of Taurus the Bull or right at the beginning of the Age of Aries (Ram). So you would think that the Sphinx would have horns. But it doesn't, the Sphinx is a lion, which would correspond to the Age of Leo. So perhaps the Sphinx was built around 9,000 BC, shortly after then end of the last Ice Age, or perhaps not.
The Zodiac Wheel
Below is a graphic of the Zodiac Wheel. It shows the star constellations intersected by a line drawn from Earth and through the Sun over the 26,000 year period of Earth's axial precession. The graphic can be used to determine the Zodiac sign throughout one calendar year, and also the Zodiac sign observed during the Spring Equinox. The beginning of the Age of Pisces represents the year 1 AD in our Modern dating system. The beginning of recorded history occurs around 4,000 BC, near the beginning of the Age of Taurus. The last ice age ended around 11,000 BC at the end of the Age of Virgo.
And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the heavens to separate the day from the night. And let them be for signs and for seasons, and for days and years,"
Originally published March 20, 2022
Researched and Written by: Thomas Acreman
The Babylonian Astronomical Compendium MUL.APIN by Hermann Hunger
Milankovitch (Orbital) Cycles and Their Role in Earth's Climate - NASA
Axial Precession - NASA
The Pyramids and Sphinx by Desmond Stewart