December 10, 2014
In 1792, Joseph Mohr was born into less than well off circumstances in the Austrian city of Salzburg. His mother was unmarried and his father had deserted her before Joseph’s birth. His mother worked hard to make sure her son received a good education, and soon a local priest took Mohr under his wing. The priest encouraged Mohr’s natural musical talent and made sure that he received an education. Mohr studied at a Benedictine monastery starting in 1808, began seminary school in 1811, and by 1815 he had been ordained as a priest.
In 1816, Mohr was working as an assistant priest in the town of Mariapfarr, 75 miles South of Salzburg. During his time there, he writes a poem describing the birth of the baby Jesus. He files the poem away with his things and goes on about his duties at the church. The following year, poor health forces him to return to Salzburg. Mohr recovers and in 1818 he takes another job as an assistant priest at the Church of St. Nicholas in Oberndorf, Austria, a small town about 10 miles North of Salzburg.
November 18, 2014
The Pilgrims were a group of English citizens who chose to separate from the church of England and practice Christianity freely. Much of what we know about their journeys is taken from William Bradford’s Of Plimoth Colony and Mourt’s Relation. Bradford was himself a member of the Pilgrims, and so his writing is an eyewitness account of the events and decisions that shaped their destiny.
In England during the early 1600’s, King James ruled over the church of England. Those who chose to separate from his rule faced almost certain persecution, imprisonment, and sometimes even death. The Pilgrims (separatists) saw James’ rule over the church to be corrupt and not in keeping with the teachings of the Word of God. They began to meet in secret to study the Bible and worship God together in a manner that they believed to be right and holy. After enough persecution and secretive worship, they decided that it was time to leave England in search of a new land where they could practice their religious beliefs freely.
In 1608 they were exiled from England to Holland for 12 years. At first they arrived...
November 1, 2014
The use of romantic in English goes back to the seventeenth century when it was used to describe imagination and inventiveness in storytelling and also to characterize scenery and paintings. The word romantic, obviously, comes from the word romance. A romance originally was a type of story that was written in a romance language. That is, the languages that developed as offspring of Latin in areas that had once been Roman provinces. From these languages came French, Spanish, and Italian, among other romance languages.
Since these stories were largely written about love and adventure, the word romantic became associated with them over the years. Furthermore, since these stories were usually set in a scenic area, the phrase 'romantic spot' became associated with beautiful settings as opposed to those that were ugly or common. In modern French the word for novel is still roman, while in English a romance is a type of novel.
October 21, 2014
Halloween began long ago as part of the Celtic new years festival. The tribes of people we now call Celts lived in Ireland, Britain, and Northern France about 2500 years ago. Their festival marked the end of Summer and the coming of the dark and cold winter months. According to their calendar, the year began on a day corresponding to November 1 on our present calendar. This date marked the beginning of winter. The Celtic people worshiped gods and spirits of nature. Their festival was a time to be thankful for their harvest.
The Celts called this festival Samhain (SAH-win), which means "The end of Summer." Samhain was celebrated during the three days of the full moon near the end of October. To symbolize the end of the Summer months, all fires in people's homes were put out. Then later, Celtic priests, called Druids, created a new fire for the new year in a public place. Villagers would carry hot embers from the community fire back to their homes to relight their own fires.
The Celts believed that during this time when their fires were out...
October 16, 2014
On September 5, 1977, the Voyager 1 space probe was launched by NASA from the Cape Canaveral Space Launch Complex in Florida. It flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979, followed by Saturn on November 12, 1980. At the request of Carl Sagan, on February 14, 1990, NASA engineers turned the space craft around in order to take the first ever 'portrait' of the solar system as seen from the outside. A series of pictures were taken of the sun and the planets using Voyager 1's cameras. Narrow-angle images of Earth, Venus, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and the sun were acquired as the spacecraft built the wide-angle mosaic. Between February 14, 1990 and June 6, 1990, Voyager 1 returned 60 frames back to Earth. One picture at first glance is mostly dark and appears to show nothing at all. But upon a closer look it is a much more dramatic photo. If you look closely, you can see a tiny speck of light. That speck is Earth, as seen by Voyager 1 from about 4 billion miles away.
The late astronomer Carl Sagan eloquently tried to express how he felt about this photo in his book Pale Blue Dot:
October 11, 2014
Nearly all humans in the modern world live in some kind of a permanent residence. But it hasn't always been like this. Our species started out as hunter gatherers and began to make permanent settlements mostly due to the rise of agriculture. Only 3% of the world's population lived in cities in 1800. Since then we have urbanized our existence more and more.
Archeological evidence indicates that domestication of various plants and animals began around 12,000 years ago, starting the Halocene epoch. However the Neolithic Revolution involved societies radically altering their natural environment by means of deforestation and irrigation for the propose of food crop cultivation. This required societies to spend nearly all of their time and resources in one location. The conventional view holds that cities first began to form after the Neolithic revolution, around 5,500 BC. The earliest know permanent human settlement is Sumer is present day Southern Iraq. It was settled between 5500 and 4000 BC.
Nailing down a date for the initial founding of a city can be somewhat tricky. As with...
September 6, 2014
Just before sunset on April 5, 1815, a massive explosion shook the volcanic island of Sumbawa in the Indonesian archipelago. For two hours, a stream of lava erupted from Mount Tambora, the highest peak in the region, sending a plume of ash eighteen miles into the sky.
More than eight hundred miles away, Thomas Stamford Raffles, the lieutenant-governor of Java, heard the blast at his residence and assumed it came from cannons firing in the distance. Other British authorities in the region made the same mistake. Fearing a neighboring village was under attack, Raffles dispatched troops to find and repel the invaders.
240 miles North of Tambora on the southwestern tip of Sulawesi, the commander of the Benares, a cruiser of the British East India Company, reported "a firing of cannon." The explosions appeared to come from the South. As they continued, "the reports seemed to approach much nearer, and sounded like heavy guns occasionally, with slighter reports between." Assuming that pirates were in the area, the Benares went to sea and spent the next three days...
August 2, 2014
By Easter 1702 Sebastian had finished his studies at Michaelisschule and was ready for a University. Attending any worthwhile university without funds would have been quite a challenge for most young men, but not too much of a problem for such a determined youth as Sebastian. But he did not seriously consider studying at a University. He was most eager to begin musical work in earnest and felt ready for any position that might come his way. Later in life he might have regretted this decision, as in 18th century Germany attendance at a University made a tremendous difference in a musician's standing both socially and economically. It was for this reason that he would later insist that his sons attend a University, even though he was confident they would choose a musical career themselves.
But as a youth of 17 years Sebastian was not quite so farsighted. And there was no one in his life at the time to give him any such advice. Where to look for suitable employment was the main focus that arose at this point in his life. Significantly, he did not consider staying in Northern Germany. Advancing his career would have been much more expedient had he done so, as he...
June 21, 2014
The territory of Switzerland has many large areas that are covered with enormous mountains. Before the 19th century, this terrain made it very difficult to travel across the country. In addition to its challenging terrain, cold winters often create frequent and deep snowfall. Although beautiful, this makes travel of any kind quite a challenge.
The Swiss railway engineers of the nineteenth and twentieth century had to be creative, innovative, and downright courageous to build a railway network as complex as required by the country's mountainous geography. A major limitation of rail transport is its sensitivity to grade changes. As such, engineers had to plan and construct many bridges and tunnels to cross rivers and canyons and to pass through mountains in order to keep railways as level as possible.
One of the most impressive feats was the construction of the Landwasser Viaduct on the Albula railway near Filisur village. It is a perfect example of the combination of bridge and tunnel construction so common throughout the country of Switzerland. Completed and operational...
June 2, 2014
This is the first of many articles about the life of Johann Sebastian Bach. After which there will be more to follow chronicling the lives of his many gifted family members. The legacy of this remarkably talented family ranges for more than two centuries from the sixteenth-century miller Veit to Wilhelm Friedrich Ernst (1759 - 1845), Johann Sebastian's grandson. All totaled seven generations of musical genius. But for now we will start with the early adventures in Sebastian's life...
Inside the Georgenkirche church in Eisenach, Germany there stands a baptismal font erected in the year 1503. This relic, which still stands today after much repair following WWII arial bombardment, has been the site of many significant events through the centuries. It was on March 23, 1685 that the town musician Johann Ambrosius Bach had a son baptized under then name of Johann Sebastian. Pastors of this church still to this day refer to this event whenever a baby is christened here. Of the two godfathers, one, the town musician Sebastian Nagel, came all the way from the city of Gotha. The other, Johann Georg Koch, was a forester in Eisenach.
May 22, 2014
Many years ago, the island nation currently known as England was a much more primitive place. Some of the oldest literature about this part of the world is written by Celtic tribal peoples and by the immortal Roman historian Tacitus.
At this time the Angle, Saxon, and Jute tribes had not yet moved onto the island. It was inhabited by an ancient people called the Britons. The land was covered with swamps, fields, and great forests. Dangerous wild animals roamed the island freely, as well as wild cattle.
The Britons lived in huts built from sticks and mud. Sheep and horses were stockaded within small tribal villages. Ditches were dug around these settlements to protect the villagers from both man and beast. For these wild people had made a tradition out of fighting each other.
The Britons had predominantly blue eyes, and many accounts by Romans remarked at how common red and blonde hair was among those who inhabited the entire island. The Britons wore skins from local animals they routinely hunted, especially during the snowy winters...
May 1, 2014
The Sewanee Memorial Cross sits in a wooded area on the edge of a bluff on the campus of The University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee. Sitting on the Cumberland plateau overlooking the Franklin County valley, it was constructed in August 1922 as a memorial to all who died in "The war to end all wars." Today it not only serves as a reminder of those who died in WWI, but for all from Franklin county who have died in wars since then.
To visit the cross one starts at the University and travels down Tennessee Ave. As the cross grows nearer it appears directly in the middle of the road. The road dead ends here with a loop around the cross. A beautiful place day or night.
There are many plaques commemorating these wars. The text for each plaque at the base of the cross reads:
To the sons of Sewanee who answered their country's call to service in the World War 1917-1918
April 23, 2014
Berchtesgaden is a beautiful land located in the extreme Southeastern tip of Germany in the Bavarian Alps. This small town is surrounded on all sides by a wealth of pristine streams, meadows, and forests, all nestled within snow capped mountains. There are only a few roads and one rail road track that all dead end in this valley. Berchtesgaden truly is surrounded by mountains on all sides. With the most prominent peak being the Watzmann to the South as shown in the image to the left. Being a small town, it does have a permanent population. At the same time it is a national park in Germany, attracting 1.3 million visitors per year. Berchtesgaden is so much more than just a tourist attraction. It has a rich history that includes kings, writers, musicians, and many stories from WWII.
Salt mines were opened here in the 12th century, making the region more prosperous and beginning many centuries of rivalry with the present day Austrian towns of Hallein and Salzburg, also know for their numerous salt mines.
Starting in 1300 AD the town was ruled by monks from its Augustinian abbey. These monks...
February 1, 2014
Hunger is the best sauce.
Plan the work, work the plan.
If the shoe fits, wear it.
If wishes were horses, beggars would ride.
Let sleeping dogs lie.
Look before you leap.
Make hay while the sun shines.
What goes around, comes around.
All that glitters is not gold.
Where there's smoke, there's fire.
As you sow, so you shall reap.
Bad news travels quickly.
One rotten apple spoils the barrel.
Better late than never.
Welcome new readers!
In a hope to share any interesting historical stories I come across in the future I will be writing and posting articles whenever I can. Hopefully quite often.
I'll also be keeping you up to date on any good reads I come across in the Recommended section.
Looking for something in particular? Find it more quickly on the Search page.
And here is a complete list of all articles since the beginning.
Size of the Known Universe
Disappearance of Great Nomads
The Eclipse of 1919
James Cook - His First Voyage
A History of Personal Wealth
The Christmas Truce of 1914
Dona Nobis Pacem
The Battle of Tours - 732 AD
Western Civilization prior to WWI
The Bedrock of New York City
Roman Emperor Constantine
The Family Tree of J. S. Bach
Eratosthenes - Earth's Circumference
"It is possible to believe that all the past is but the beginning of a beginning, and that all that is and has been is but the twilight of the dawn."
~ H.G. Wells
The Discovery of the Future